Centar za stručno obrazovanje
The Centre for Vocational Education and Training (VET Centre) is a developmental, advisory and research institution founded in 2003 by social partners (Government of Montenegro, represented by the Ministry of Education and Science, Employment Agency of Montenegro, Chamber of Commerce of Montenegro and Association of Trade Unions of Montenegro) within the process of education system decentralization and development of vocational and adult education.
VET Centre develops and implements reform processes of vocational and adult education, by complying with strategic commitments of the Government, laws, bylaws and international standards, thus contributing to the creation of coherent and remarkable education system.
VET Centre provides full technical and professional support to schools and adult education providers in the implementation of curricula and training programmes, professional development of management and teachers, establishing contacts with commercial entities, for the sake of more efficient and better education of students and learners.
VET Centre develops high quality partner cooperation with international institutions and associations for the sake of exchange of experience and examples of good practice, as well as the improvement of vocational and adult education system. VET Centre continuously works on the promotion of vocational and adult education, and life-long learning concept for the sake of motivating youth and adults to get involved into the system of vocational and adult education.
Embracing the concept of the “knowledge society“, as well as creating the preconditions for equal access to education for all Montenegrin citizens, are the main challenges of vocational and adult education. The main area of the VET Centre’s work is the development and strengthening of vocational and adult education system, emphasizing the adjustment of these educational systems to social changes, market economy, technological progress and information technologies. The VET Centre is one of the key implementers of vocational education reform in Montenegro, as well as the institution which created the adult education system, raising it to a significant level of social recognition. In January 2013, in compliance with new regulations, the VET was re-founded by the Ministry of Education as its only founder.
Since it was established, the VET Centre has been investing in its employees in order to ensure high professionalism of the staff, openness to changes and innovations, as well as readiness for continuous professional improvement. So far, it has brought good results, contributing to the development of this institution and to the recognition of its significance in the country, region and beyond.
There are three Departments operating within the VET Centre, which are supported by the Department for General, Legal and Accounting Affairs.
Department for Occupational Standards and Curricula intensively reforms curricula in accordance with new methodological documents, trying to achieve alignment with labour market needs, on the basis of occupational standards.
Adult Education Department is the only professional service in Montenegro dealing with developmental, advisory and research affairs in the field of adult education. Since the VET Centre’s foundation, the Department has been actively developing training programmes for occupations, changing qualification, developing additional qualifications, engaging in professional improvement and development of key competences.
Evaluation Department (Quality Assurance Department) conducts quality assessment, at least once in every four years, in institutions in which VET curricula are implemented. It is in charge of planning and training in the field of preparation and implementation of internal evaluation in vocational and adult education institutions.
Adult education in Montenegro is a part of a single education system which enables the involvement of citizens into lifelong learning process for the sake of developing competitive market economy, reduction of unemployment and social exclusion. Lifelong learning orientation should ensure the creation of conditions for mobility and competitiveness in the European integration process. Therefore, EPALE Project 2017-2018 in Montenegro is oriented towards the goals of Strategic framework for the European cooperation in the area of education and training “Education and Training 2020 (ET 2020)”, aimed at the tendency to make lifelong learning and mobility a reality by the implementation of lifelong learning strategies, measures which ensure more flexible learning pathways and by the promotion of learning via mobility. Key priorities are related to the following:
- Promotion of EPALE platform and increase of the number of EPALE ambassadors in Montenegro;
- Contribution to the development of EPALE community and increase of the number of platform users for 100% with regard to the number of registered users in 2016, with the support of EPALE ambassadors;
- Development of research practice in adult education and implementation of targeted educational activities
- Establishment of communities of practice of teachers who teach the same subject;
- Creation of manual for adult learning, especially focused on the category of persons with poor skills;
- Creation a single electronic database on programmes, learners and adult education providers;
- Support to the strategy and activities for the increase of participation of adults in lifelong learning activities via research practice and cooperation with NGO sector;
- Networking with the representatives of NSSs from the region and EPALE ambassadors;
- Promotion of EPALE community through networking of professionals in adult education with a view to exchanging ideas and good practices via gathering at the international andragogical symposium and other professional events;
- Provision of support to the development of adult education system via gathering at the international conference on strategic directions of development of this area;
- Professional development of NSS representatives and staff members;
- Position within the Project: Manager
- Qualification: Teacher of Defence and Protection
- Expertise and competencies: A decade long experience in the field of education (direct participation in teaching, management of educational institutions, project management, participation in numerous projects related to adult education and life-long learning promotion, etc.)
- Complementary skills: organizational skills, leadership skills, teamwork skills, time management skills, communication skills, constructive dispute settlement, mediation skills, negotiation skills;
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Position within the Project: Trainer
- Qualification: Adult Education Specialist
- Expertise and competencies: Vast experience in the field of adult education (direct participation in teaching – teaching assistant at the Faculty of Philosophy in Nikšić, master trainer in adult education), organizer of seminars for teachers employed in adult education, work with international organizations (DVV International, GIZ, LuxDev, ETF, KulturKontakt Austria…), member of Qualifications Council, member of the committees for training programmes, organizational and normative issues of adult education, member of coordination team for the implementation of the Adult Education Festival, etc.
- Complementary skills: trainer skills – organizational skills, teamwork skills, time management skills, communication skills, group dynamics management, conflict settlement, negotiation, convincing…
- E-mail: email@example.com
- Position within the Project: Trainer
- Qualification: Manager in Tourism and Hotel Management
- Expertise and competencies: Ten-year experience in the field of economy and education (work in hotels, direct participation in teaching, participation in numerous education related projects, coordinator of international cooperation among schools, etc.)
- Complementary skills: organizational skills, leader skills, teamwork skills, time management skills, communication skills, constructive conflict solving, mediation skills, negotiation skills
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Position within the Project: Trainer
- Qualification: Adult Education Specialist
- Expertise and competencies: 15 years of experience in the field of adult education (participation in working groups for preparation of legal and strategic documents in the field of adult education, for coordination and participation in numerous projects related to adult education, membership in major professional bodies in the field of adult education, participation in the development of methodological documents the area of adult education and the development of programs for adults (programs that lead to acquiring professional qualifications and key skills and customized programs for adults), the realization of programs for andragogical training of teaching staff working in adult education, cooperation with institutions of social partnership and organizers of adult education, organization of events and activities to promote lifelong learning, etc.)
- Complementary skills: Coaching skills, Organisational skills, leadership skills, teamwork skills, time management, communication skills, mediation, negotiation skills
- E-mail: email@example.com
- Position within the Project: Trainer
- Qualification: Teacher of English Language and Literature
- Expertise and competencies: national contact point for cooperation with EPALE ambassadors and registration of new EPALE users, cooperation with international organizations active in the field of vocational and adult education, liaison officer for the projects aimed at improvement of vocational and adult education in Montenegro, organization of meetings, conferences, seminars, trainings, study visits, press conferences and other public events on behalf of the VET Centre, cooperation with NGO sector.
- Complementary skills: organizational skills, communication skills, negotiation skills, project writing skills, strong initiative, extensive knowledge about EU institutions and vocational education related organizations
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Position within the Project: Administrative and Finance Officer
- Qualification: Bachelor of Applied Management for Finance and Accounting
- Expertise and competencies: management of finances for the needs of the institution as well as for the needs of national and international projects
- Complementary skills: organizational skills, teamwork skills, time management skills, communication skills
- E-mail: email@example.com
- Position within the Project: Administrative Officer
- Qualification: Bachelor of Law
- Expertise and competencies: multiannual experience in the field of law, with special focus on public procurement which are integral part of Project activities, experience in teaching in secondary VET schools, arbitre in the proceedings of peaceful labour disputes settlement, etc.
- Complementary skills: organizational skills, teamwork skills, time management skills, communication skills
- E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Position within the Project: Technical Support Officer
- Qualification: Teacher of Montenegrin language and literature,
- Expertise and competencies: Ten years of experience in conducting activities related to the work of the Committee on Adult Education and Vocational Education Committee; Experience in the organization of various events (contests, fairs, festivals), meetings, sessions, conferences.
- Complementary skills: Organisational skills, teamwork skills, time management, communication skills
- E-mail: email@example.com
Adults enter education, training or learning by their own choice, for the purpose of improving their knowledge, skills and competences or acquiring an adequate qualification for a more successful life, work and personal development.
Adult education is a part of the single education system of Montenegro.
The goal of adult education in Montenegro includes:
- attaining at least primary education and the first qualification by all citizens;
- raising the level of education, i.e. the functional literacy of citizens;
- retraining, additional training, specialised training and further development of both the unemployed and the employed for the labour market;
- enabling education and acquiring knowledge, skills and competences that correspond to personal abilities and age of individuals, through contemporary forms of education and learning;
- continuous professional development;
- inclusion of the most vulnerable population groups through different forms of education and learning with a view to their integration;
- investing in human resource development;
- promoting the significance of lifelong learning;
- raising the level of knowledge, skills and competences in the area of human democracy and environmental protection.
Principles on which adult education in Montenegro is based:
- principle of lifelong learning;
- principle of accessibility and freedom to choose education under equal conditions for all citizens in compliance with possibilities and needs;
- principle of correlation between work and education;
- principle of equally worthy educational standard in both formal and non-formal education;
- principle of quality assurance and quality improvement;
- principle of acknowledging specific qualities of adults in education and learning process;
- principle of acknowledging andragogical science and profession and the use of contemporary technologies;
- principle of transparency.
Types of adult education and learning:
- formal education;
- non-formal education or learning;
- informal education;
- self-directed learning.
Formal adult education
In accordance with the Law on Adult Education, formal education is an organised process of education implemented, based on the current public curriculum or its part (module, learning unit and the like), which provides acquisition of the level of education, i.e. one or more vocational qualifications. Therefore, adults can acquire qualification of the level of education, which is confirmed by a diploma, (formal education), in accordance with General Law on Education, Law on Elementary Education, Law on Gymnasium, Law on Vocational Education and Law on Higher Education. Organisation of education is adjusted to adults in order to acquire a diploma of vocational education or gymnasium, in accordance with the Law on Vocational Education and the Law on Gymnasium. Adult students who have completed certain curriculum may want to continue their education in another curriculum in order to acquire diploma. In that case, if successfully completed, subjects and modules which are common for both curricula will be recognised in accordance with the mentioned laws.
Basic Adult Education
The right to education under same conditions has been guaranteed by the Constitution of Montenegro. Elementary education is obligatory and free of charge. Exercising right to literacy is one of universal human rights. One of the goals of adult education defined by the Law on Adult Education is to achieve at least primary education and first qualification for all citizens. In terms of this Law, an adult learner is a person older than 15, who fulfils all requirements for participation in adult training programme. Basic adult training programmes may include persons younger than 15, who do not have status of student. Functional literacy is a basic ability to read, write and calculate, as well as mastering a minimum knowledge and skills required for successful and quality performance of different activities in working, family and social environment. Elementary functional literacy is a prerequisite for acquiring knowledge, skills and habits, i.e. competences and qualifications which are necessary in a modern society. It is the first step on the way to the completion of full functional literacy.
General and vocational secondary education
In compliance with provisions of the General Law on Education, the National Council for Education adopts adapted curricula for adult education and guidelines for adapting them to provide acquisition of the level of education by adults. The National Council for Education stipulates, inter alia, validity and equal value of the curricula delivered in private adult education institutions with appropriate current public curricula. One of the goals of vocational education, according to the Law on Vocational Education is to ensure acquisition of qualifications, which provide students and adults with equal access to the labour market. Vocational education of adults is conducted in accordance with this law and special regulations. Formal education of adults, according to this law, has been recognised through the form of extra-curriculum student. Extra-curriculum student acquires education by attending preparatory teaching (instructive-consultative teaching) and by sitting for exams. A curriculum determines the areas in which extra-curriculum students may acquire vocational education, as well as the manner of the delivery of practical education. Extra-curriculum student is obliged to attend the preparatory teaching. Subjects, teaching contents and lessons for each curriculum have been determined by the school Panel of Teachers. Total number of lessons may not be less than 50% of total annual number of lessons for the specific curriculum and is established in accordance with appropriate methodology adopted by the National Council upon the proposal of the Centre for Vocational Education. Extra-curriculum student sits for the class exam and the relevant exam upon the completion of the level of education. These exams are organised in June, August and January. During one school year, an extra-curriculum student may complete one grade. The class exam comprises one, more or all subjects in accordance with the curriculum. By sitting for the class exam, the extra-curriculum student sits for additional or differential exams, according to the curriculum, provided that only one grade may be completed in one examination term. Extra-curriculum student is obliged to pay compensation for these exams and preparatory teaching, which is determined by the Ministry. Positive marks earned during regular schooling at the end of the teaching process or school year or during previous examination term, shall be recognised. The method and procedure of examination is prescribed by the Ministry.
Non-formal adult education:
Non-formal education is obtained according to programmes of education for:
- training, retraining, additional training, specialisation and professional development;
- acquiring and improving key skills and key competences;
- acquiring knowledge and skills from various areas (civic democracy, environmental protection, sustainable development, family life, health protection, etc.).
According to the Law on Adult Education, non-formal education, or learning is realized through organised and envisaged aims and support, in purpose of acquiring and improving knowledge, skills and competences, which may be tested and verified in the procedure for obtaining national vocational qualification, or, key skills.
Informal learning is conducted with no specific intent or organised aim, time and support in performing in-service daily activities, within family and social life and leisure time. Knowledge, skills and competences acquired through non-formal and informal learning may be tested and verified in the procedure for obtaining national vocational qualification, or key skill. Self-directed learning is conducted through activities within which an adult person manages the learning process and is responsible for the outcomes of such learning without immediate and continuing support of the others.
Acquisition of vocational qualifications
Qualification up to the level of higher education is acquired in accordance with the Law on National Vocational Qualifications (“Official Gazettes of Montenegro”, no. 80/08 dated 26 December 2008, 14/09 dated 24 February 2009, 80/10 dated 31 December 2010, 18/11 dated 1 April 2011, 40/11 dated 8 August 2011). According to the provisions of this Law, vocational qualification up to the level of higher education is acquired with: Completion of current public curriculum in compliance with the law, Completion of a module, in case that current public curriculum has been developed based on a number of occupational standards, Verification of knowledge, skills and competences upon the completion of a special adult training programme, Direct verification of knowledge, skills and competences, in accordance with the catalogue of standards of knowledge, skills and competences (examination catalogue) for the relevant vocational qualification, Recognition of foreign certificates;
Vocational qualification in higher education is acquired with completion of: Study programme, in accordance with the law, Special programme of development in the area of higher education (special programme of development).
Adult education is intended for different target groups (unemployed without qualification or with qualification which are not required in the labour market any longer, employed persons, school leavers). Training programmes (for the change of vocation or additional training, upon which national vocational qualification may be acquired after testing) is determined by the National Council for Education and adopted by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare. The Law on National Vocational Qualifications provides individuals with possibilities of acquiring nationally recognised vocational qualification, by testing, or assessment of previously acquired knowledge, by testing upon completed training programme or with completion of part of the programme or its modules, if that part is based on occupational standards. Primary objective of establishing system for vocational qualifications, which are to be confirmed by certificate (certification of qualification) is to develop and conduct a testing procedure in order to recognise previously acquired knowledge and learning in accordance with nationally established occupational standards. The result of the certification of qualification is a certificate – publicly valid document, which proves vocational qualification at certain level of complexity, but not the level of education. Certificate does not replace diploma, i.e. document on the level of education. Assessment of non-formal and informal learning meet the needs of the adults and those of the labour market, but also support principles of the lifelong learning.
Acquisition of key competences
Key competences represent transferable, multifunctional package of knowledge, skills and attitudes that all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, inclusion and employment. They should be developed by the end of mandatory education or training and should represent a basis for further long-term learning. This definition of key competences, provided in the document of the European Commission “Education and Training 2010”, has stressed that competences should be transferable, and thereby applicable in situations and contexts, multifunctional, to help achieve several objectives, solve different problems and perform various tasks. Key competences are the prerequisites for an adequate personal attitude in life, work and later learning process. Based on the legal regulations of Montenegro, key competences (in the field of information and communication technologies, foreign languages and the like), important for performing tasks within one occupation, are acquired in accordance with the Law on National Vocational Qualifications and are accepted in the procedure for acquiring vocational qualification. Vocational qualification does not provide the level of education, but is recognised in the process of acquiring the level of education in accordance with special regulation of the Ministry.
Other programmes of non-formal education
Other non-formal training implies programmes acquired in accordance with Article 14 of the Law on Adult Education, concerning acquisition of knowledge and skills for civic democracy, environment protection, sustainable development, life in a family, successful social integration, raising quality of life, health education, social skills, third age and the like. These training programmes are adopted by the competent council, on the proposal of the Centre for Vocational Education or education provider, in compliance with the regulation. Prior to the proposal of the training programme, the competent council receives the opinion of the competent state administration authorities, Employment Agency of Montenegro, Chamber of Commerce of Montenegro, representative Union of Employers and representative Association of Trade Unions.
Legislative regulations governing the area of adult education in Montenegro:
- Law on Adult Education http://www.mps.gov.me/en/library/zakoni This law regulates adult education and learning. The law defines: goals and principles of adult education, types and programmes of adult education, adult education providers, adult education learners, Adult Education Plan, etc. Adult education in Montenegro was governed by the Law on Adult Education from 2003, and the new Law on Adult Education was adopted by the Parliament in April 2011 (“Official Gazettes of Montenegro”, no. 20/11). The present legal regulations treat adult education as a part of the unified education system of Montenegro, which is based on the main principles of andragogy (lifelong learning, freedom of participation, equal access to education, assimilation of the standards of knowledge in formal and informal education and the like). Apart from the Law on Adult Education, this area is also governed by: (http://www.cso.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni)
- General Law on Education („Official Gazettes of the Republic of Montenegro, no. 64/02, 31/05 49/07, “ Official Gazettes of Montenegro”, no. 04/08, 21/09, 45/10, 45/11), which, among other issues,also stipulates where the teaching and learning process of adults may be organised and licensing of adult education providers, referred to in Articles 45, 46 and 46a of this law. This law regulates organisation and conditions for carrying out educational work in the areas related to education, as well as adult education. The law defines: National Council and its working parties, educational institutions, governing and managing an institution, teachers, development and advancement of teachers, external quality assessment and quality assurance, financing, etc. (http://www.cso.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni)
- Law on National Vocational Qualifications - http://www.mps.gov.me/en/library/zakoni (“Official Gazettes of Montenegro”, no 80/08) provides individuals with possibility of acquiring nationally recognised vocational qualification by verification or assessment of previously acquired knowledge, testing upon completed training programme or its part or module, if that part is based on the occupational standard. Primary objective of establishing a system of vocational qualifications confirmed by certificate (certification of qualifications) is to develop and implement a verification procedure in order to recognise previously acquired knowledge and learning in accordance with nationally developed occupational standards. The law covers the acquisition of vocational qualifications up to the level of higher education, as well as vocational qualifications in the area of higher education. The law defines: occupational standard and examination catalogue, conditions and procedure for obtaining a vocational qualification, and the recognition of foreign certificates, protection of candidates’ rights, financing, records, supervision, etc. (http://www.cso.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni).
- Law on National Qualification Framework http://www.cko.edu.me/Default.aspx?cid=14 (“Official Gazettes of Montenegro “, no. 80/10) promotes lifelong learning, and along with that, adult education within the concept of expression of qualifications through learning outcomes and their evaluation, regardless the context wherein they have been acquired and their transferability. The law regulates national qualification framework, qualification levels and sublevels, types of qualifications, volume of qualifications, as well as competences of bodies for the proposal, adoption and classification of qualifications. Qualification framework is an instrument which enables the classification, comparison, development and understanding of qualifications, their correlation and clear overview of different paths for acquisition of qualifications serving the needs of labour market and society. The law defines qualification framework, competences of bodies and authorities, etc. (http://www.cso.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni)
- Law on Vocational Education –(“Official Gazettes of Montenegro”, no. 39/13) and the Law on Gymnasium (“Official Gazettes of Montenegro”, no. 39/13), govern the process and methods of adapting teaching to adult students, aiming at acquiring diploma of vocational school or gymnasium. Adult students who have completed certain curriculum may want to continue their education in another curriculum in order to acquire diploma. In that case, if successfully completed, subjects and modules which are common for both curricula will be recognised in accordance with the mentioned laws. The law on Vocational education defines: qualifications of education levels and vocational qualifications acquired in vocational schools, occupational standards and qualification standards, education programmes, master craftsman exam, part-time students, teachers and associates carrying out programmes, etc. (http://www.cso.gov.me/biblioteka/zakoni).
In purpose of clear formulation of adult education system, public administration authorities competent for education have adopted the following subordinate regulations:
- Rules on Conditions, Manner and Procedure for Issuance and Renewal of Work Permits for Teachers, Directors and Deputy Directors of Education Institutions (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 23/14 dated 30 May 2014).
- Rules on Professional Examination of Teachers (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 67/03 dated 15 December 2003, 17/04 dated 4 April 2014).
- Rules on Contents and Maintenance of Adult Education Records and Documentation (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 27/12 dated 31 May 2012).
- Rules on Contents, Forms and Methods for Education Quality Assurance in Institutions (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 26 dated 24 May 2012).
- Rules on Forms and Issuance of Certificate (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 6/11 dated 25 January 2011).
- Rules on Methods and Procedures for Recognition of Foreign Certificates (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 6/11 dated 25 January 2011).
- Rules on Programmes for Examiners (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 56/2010 dated 24 September 2010).
- Rules on Methods and Procedures for Issuance and Revoke of Examiners’ Licenses and Forms and Content of Examiners’ Licenses (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 461/10 dated 6 August 2010).
- Rules on Composition and Method of Work of the Examination Panel (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 46/2010 dated 6 August 2010).
- Rules on Qualification Profile of Lecturers, Trainers and other Professionals (‘’Official Gazettes of Montenegro’’, no. 43/09 dated 3 July 2009).
- Rules on Methods of Assessment of Knowledge, Skills and Competences Acquired in Shorter Period of Time based on Programmes for Additional Training, Change of Vocation, Specialization, In-Service Education and Other Forms of Education and Training (2009).
- Rules on Procedures for Licensing of Education Institutions and Methods of Keeping the Registry of Licensed Institutions (‘’Official Gazettes of the Republic of Montenegro’’, no. 45/2006 dated 17 July 2006).
- Rules on Detailed Conditions for Establishment of Education Institutions and Methods of Keeping the Registry of Licensed Institutions (‘’Official Gazettes of the Republic of Montenegro’’, no. 40/2006 dated 22 June 2006).
Strategic documents from the area of adult education:
- Strategy for Adult Education of Montenegro 2015-2025 http://www.cso.gov.me/biblioteka/strategije – The Strategy provides guidelines to which Montenegro will aspire in the coming decade in the area of adult education. The basic goal is to create prerequisites for education available to all citizens under the same conditions with the possibility of continuous monitoring of their knowledge, skills and competences throughout their lives. Priority goals determined by the Strategy include:
- Increasing social inclusion of adult citizens through activities of lifelong learning and education;
- Improving knowledge, skills and competences of adults in favour of employability, labour market mobility and competitiveness;
- Increasing competences of the employed with a view to achieving faster economic growth;
- Establishing the system of quality assurance in adult education;
- Providing a flexible and sustainable system of adult education.
- Adult Education Plan 2015–2019 – The Plan represents operationalisation and concretisation of goals set out within the Strategy for Adult Education of Montenegro (2015-2025). The Adult Education Plan 2015-2019 represents the basis for the preparation and adoption of annual adult education plans which will include and specify more detailed activities and resources required for their implementation. Priority areas of adult education determined by the Plan for the forthcoming period include:
- Programmes and activities of lifelong education and learning;
- Improvement of knowledge, skills and competences of the unemployed;
- Improvement of competences of the employed;
- Quality assurance in adult education;
- Provision of flexible and sustainable system of adult education.
-Strategy for Lifelong Entrepreneurship Education 2015-2019, defines key challenges and priorities in this area:
- Strengthening entrepreneurial literacy as an integral part of formal, non-formal and informal education and life philosophy for all citizens;
- Introduction of competitiveness as a key competence at all levels of education;
- Introduction, development and implementation of the concept of entrepreneurship education at pre-school level with a view to creating a foundation for “upgrading learning”;
- Continuous provision of services to potential/existing entrepreneurs for starting, managing as well as the growth of enterprises;
- Full preparation of teachers and lecturers for the development of entrepreneurial competence at all levels of education and drawing up strategies for educational institutions so as to make the manner in which they implement educational process more entrepreneurial;
- Development of efficient policy framework, along with partnerships between the economy and educational institutions working continuously on improvements in terms of clearly defined target indicators, and exchanging and distributing examples of good practice, both in domestic and in international frameworks. (http://nasme.me/dokumenti/)
- National Strategy for Employment and Human Resources Development (2012 – 2015) is a document which represents the basis for the employment policy implemented through annual action plans. Action plan of employment and development of human resources determines measures and activities aimed at achieving priorities and goals defined by the National Strategy for Employment and Development of Human Resources (2012-2015), which are based on the need to resolve current problems in the labour market, such as: high rate of long-term unemployment, high share of the young in the structure of the unemployed, marked disproportion between supply and demand in the labour market, considerable growth of the number of unemployed university graduates, regional differences in unemployment, as well as a large number of the unemployed considered to have lower employability prospects.
RELEVANT INSTITUTIONS AND EXPERT BODIES
Ministry of Education Website: www.mps.gov.me
Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare Website: www.mrs.gov.me
Centre for Vocational Education Website: www.cso.gov.me
Bureau for Education Services Website: www.zzs.gov.me
Examination Centre Website: www.iccg.co.me
Employment Office Website: www.zzzcg.org
Human Resources Administration Website: www.uzk.co.me
Directorate for Development of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Website www.nasme.me
Chamber of Economy Website: www.privrednakomora.me
Union of Employers of Montenegro Website: www.poslodavci.org
National Council for Education
Qualification Council www.cko.edu.me
ADULT EDUCATION PROVIDERS
According to the Law on Adult Education, adult education may be implemented, i.e. organised at a school, specialised organisation for adult education (adult education centres, training centres, driving schools, etc.), institution for accommodation and care of persons with special educational needs, as well as other legal entities that meet the prescribed conditions and have a license to operate, in compliance with law.
So far, the Ministry of Education has issued 90 licences for work in adult education. Among the licensed providers, the majority are private institutions, followed by secondary and primary schools and several faculties.
Most of the licensed adult education providers are in the central region of Montenegro - 54, whereas 26 are in the northern and 10 in the southern region.
EDUCATION PROGRAMME PERFORMERS
Adult education is conducted by teachers, teaching assistants, teachers or instructors of practical education, lecturers, facilitators and other professional workers, in compliance with the law regulating the relevant education area, curriculum, i.e. education programme.
The performers must be andragogically trained. Andragogical training is carried out according to the Programme of Andragogical Training of Staff working in adult education, adopted by the competent Council
Creating and implementing the policy of education in Montenegro is principally the responsibility of the Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education of Montenegro is responsible for all levels of education. Within the Ministry operates a Directorate for general secondary education, vocational education and adult education, where the activities of planning, monitoring and analysing the situation in the area of general secondary education, vocational education and adult education are conducted.
The responsibility for some segments of adult education area, in accordance with the existing legal regulations, belongs to the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare. In accordance with legal decisions, programmes leading towards the acquisition of national vocational qualifications are passed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, following the proposal of a competent council. The Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare issues certificates which serve as proof of acquired qualification (after the final assessment organised by Examination Centre of Montenegro), and in accordance with Law it also prescribes the form and contents of these certificates. In accordance with Law on National Vocational Qualification, the Ministry performs the recognition of foreign certificates. ( http://www.mrs.gov.me/ )
Activities of other ministries also influence the creation and implementation of adult education policy, primarily those of the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism.
Since the beginning of the reform, education policy in Montenegro was steered towards its decentralisation. The decentralisation in the area of education in Montenegro began in 2003 by establishing special institutions and forming competent councils in the area of education, to which the activities of monitoring and improving the process of education have been largely transferred.
National Council for Education was founded in 2011 based on a Decision of the Government of Montenegro, in accordance with legal regulations governing the area of education. Together with Qualification Council, the National Council for Education represents the largest professional body in the area of education. By their establishment, Council for General Education, Council for Vocational Education and Council for Adult Education which were founded in 2003, ceased to exist. ( www.cso.edu.me ) .
The Government established the National Council for the purpose of decision-making on professional matters and for professional assistance in the procedure of rendering decisions and preparing regulations in the field of education. The National Council is elected for a period of four years. In order to discuss the matters from its own competence, the National Council has formed standing and temporary working parties. Standing working parties include: 1) General Education Committee; 2) Vocational Education Committee; 3) Adult Education Committee.
Adult education in Montenegro is treated as part of a single educational system and is considered as its equal and equally important segment. In accordance with that, an Adult Education Committee has been founded for the purpose of discussing all matters from the area of their competence and providing professional assistance to the Council when passing decisions from the area of their own competence. In that manner, adult education is developed within the education system as a whole, and not as an entirely independent and autonomous area.
As of June 2015, following Decision of the Government of Montenegro (rendered upon the expiry of the previous the Council’ term), the second National Council for Education meets. The Council comprises 21 members, including the representatives of universities, pre-school institutions, primary and secondary schools, resource centres, Centres for Vocational Education, Employment Office, Trade Union of Education, Union of Employers, association of teachers, student parliament and Pupils’ and students’ dormitory.
Qualification Council was founded by the Government of Montenegro, for the purpose of improving the system of qualifications, their approval and classification into the Qualification Framework.
For the purpose of comprehensive analysis of the situation and tendencies on the labour market, analysing the existing qualifications, identifying the needs for certain qualifications and qualification development, the Qualification Council has established 15 sectoral commissions.
Sectoral commissions represent an evidence of a correlation existing between education and economy, through the involvement of representatives of:
- public authority in charge of that qualification sector;
- representative association of employers;
- representative association of employees in the relevant qualification sector;
- university, i.e. an independent higher education institution;
- Centre for Vocational Education, i.e. Bureau for Education Services;
- Ministry of Education;
- adequate body in charge of certain professions (chamber of lawyers, engineers, medical chamber etc.).
Following the Decision of the Government of Montenegro rendered in July 2015, due to the expiry of the first Council’s term, a new Qualification Council was founded comprising 17 members. Members of the Council include the representatives of: National Council for Education, Council for Higher Education, Directorate for general secondary, secondary vocational and adult education at the Ministry of Education, Department for Qualifications at the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, universities, Centre for Vocational Education, Bureau for Education Services, Examination Centre, Employment Office, Union of Employers, Chamber of Economy and Trade Union of Education.
Up to June 2015, the Council:
- adopted 123 initiatives for the development of qualifications for education levels and vocational qualifications (II – VIII level of complexity);
- gave positive opinion regarding 36 proposed occupational standards (II – V level of complexity);
- adopted 32 qualification standards related to levels of education and vocational qualifications (II – V level of complexity);
- reviewed 18 documents from the area of development and qualification acquisition.
The work of the Councils and their professional bodies ensures transparency, holistic approach, correlation between public and civil sector, correlation between educational institutions and labour market and similar.
Centre for Vocational Education of Montenegro among other things carries out the activities of adult education development and promotion of lifelong learning, through involvement of key factors of social dialogue, representatives of employers, trade union, public institutions and NGOs. (http://www.cso.gov.me/en/center?alphabet=lat) .
Developmental, advisory, research and professional tasks from the area of vocational education and adult education are conducted by the Centre for Vocational Education in accordance with provisions of the General Law on Education. The Centre was founded in 2003 on the basis of a Decision of the Government of the Republic of Montenegro, as the first institution based on social partnership among the Government of the Republic of Montenegro, Chamber of Economy of Montenegro, Union of Free Trade Unions of Montenegro and Employment Office of Montenegro. As of 2015, the Centre for Vocational Education functions as a public institution whose only founder is the Government of Montenegro. Department for adult education operates as a part of this institution, conducting the activities of:
- Research and development of adult education system;
- Preparation of education programmes;
- Proposing norms and standards of personnel requirements for the implementation of education programmes;
- Preparing and proposing a network of institutions for adult training;
- Providing opinions on introducing experimental education programmes and monitoring the implementation;
- Participating in the preparation and drafting of methodological and other documents for the area of adult education;
- Cooperating with social partners and undertaking activities aimed at development of social partnership;
- Initiating the adoption and amendment of legal regulations required for regulating the adult education system;
- Promoting the concept of lifelong education and learning.
Examination Centre of Montenegro in accordance with provisions of General Law on Education (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, 64/02 and amendments to the Law, Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, 31/05 and 49/07) performs external assessment of the accomplished standard of education and skills of students, and adult learners ( http://www.iccg.co.me/1/index.php?lang=en ).
According to the Law on Adult Education, adults may, for the purpose of obtaining a national vocational qualification, or a key skill, assess, confirm or prove knowledge, skills and competences at the Examination Centre, regardless of the manner in which these were obtained. After a completed assessment, the candidate receives a certificate, in accordance with a special regulation. External assessment of knowledge, skills and competences for the acquisition of vocational qualification of candidates is conducted by examination commission comprising licensed examiners. A list of examiners is prepared for each vocational qualification. Examination Centre establishes the list of examiners on the basis of public advertisement. Training programme for examiner in the procedure of acquiring national vocational qualifications has been prepared in accordance with the Rulebook on training programme for examiners (Official Gazette of Montenegro, 56/2010), Rulebook on the method and procedure of issuing and revoking work licence, as well as the form and content of the work license of an examiner (Official Gazette of Montenegro, 46/2010) and Rulebook on composition and method of work of examination commission (Official Gazette of Montenegro, 46/10). A licence for the work of examiners is issued by the Ministry of Education, following the proposal of the Examination Centre. Licence for the work of examiners may be obtained by a person meeting the conditions prescribed by the Rulebook. Licence for the work of examiners is issued for the period of three years.
Bureau for Examination Services is an administrative body which in the field of adult education performs developmental, advisory, research and professional matters within the domain of general education.
Employment Office of Montenegro organisationally belongs to the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare. The Employment Office of Montenegro performs a set of measures and activities in the field of education and vocational training of the unemployed, as well as workers whose services are no longer required (redundancies) (http://www.zzzcg.org/home/default.asp). In that manner the Office plays multiple roles, starting from labour market research and determining the needs for human resources, providing professional assistance to employers in preparation and implementation of education programmes, up to informing, consulting, selecting adequate learners, as well as providing a part of financial assets. The Employment Office views additional education and prequalification for the sake of employment at the labour market as a priority of its activities. As regards the activities of preparation for employment, the training for occupations in short supply is done principally. In that manner labour market supply is increased and the quality of labour force is raised.
Chamber of Economy of Montenegro and Association in accordance with provisions of the Law on Adult Education:
- organise various forms of education for the employed (consultations, conferences, fairs, etc.);
- propose programmes of on-the-job training, for the purpose development and specialisation of the employed;
- participate in preparation of standards of practical knowledge;
- provide opinion to a competent council on programmes of development and training of adults;
- propose employers that meet the requirements for performing practical part of education programme and performing practical work under the supervision, after a successfully completed programme;
- keep register of employers where practical part of programmes is performed;
- following the request of a competent body of public authority, or the Centre, provide necessary information on employers where practical work may be performed.
The Chamber of Economy has for many years been engaged in training and education of staff for the needs of the economy. At the Chamber of Economy various seminars, consultations, workshops, lectures, presentations, etc. are organised as forms of trainings. Training is organised for all members of the Chamber, regardless of whether these are small, medium-sized or large enterprises.
Human Resources Administration of Montenegro was founded in 2005 in accordance with the Law on Civil Servants and State Employees. One of the main tasks of the Human Resources Administration is training and development of public administration employees. Its activities in the area of managing and development of human potentials are aimed at:
- preparing proposals of adequate vocational development programmes and other programmes for human resource development and
- assisting public authorities in the implementation of human resource policy, training and development of human resources.
In line with that, Human Resources Administration has a leading role in defining and meeting the needs of civil servants for training, vocational development and human resource development.
In addition to the mentioned institutions, the responsibility for creating and monitoring the implementation of adult education policy also belongs to other institutions in the area of public sector, particularly in the area of civil sector, international organisation, etc.