Learning by oneself without the aid of an instructor. (Note: See also ‘Persistence’, of which self-directed learning may be one aspect).
Learning which is for personal development purposes, recreation and leisure, undertaken to improve quality of life. Recreational learning can lead to vocational learning if the goals of learners in their chosen subject become work-oriented.
Random learning can occur in everyday life. It is not an activity which is intentionally planned in advance and is not bound to special or specific places (e.g. classes) or to mediators (e.g. teachers). Random learning can be considered as a natural learning mechanism. Learners may often not be aware that they have learnt something. Note: In level 1, this is considered synonymous with ‘Informal learning’
Learning, both formal and non-formal, that is not directly linked to the labour market.