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Dyskusja EPALE na temat społeczności uczących się na obszarach wiejskich

Nie przegap kolejnej dyskusji EPALE w środę, 8 czerwca!

W środę, 8 czerwca, w godzinach 10-16, EPALE będzie gospodarzem kolejnej dyskusji online na temat społeczności uczących się na obszarach wiejskich

Pisemną dyskusję poprzedzi transmisja na żywo (10:00-10:40), w której udział wezmą zaproszeni eksperci. Ewa Smuk-Stratenwerth (Stowarzyszenie Ziarno), Cath Gristy (Studia Edukacyjne, Uniwersytet w Plymouth) i Zoltan Hajdu (Koordynator, Focus Eco Center), moderowana przez Ginę Ebner i Christin Cieślak (EAEA), podzielą się swoimi perspektywami i doświadczeniami.

Obejrzyj transmisję:

Nasi zaproszeni prelegenci będą mówić o polityce i praktyce dotyczącej obszarów wiejskich oraz o zmianach, jakie zaszły w ciągu ostatnich 20 lat. Porozmawiamy także o tym, jaki wpływ na nasze społeczeństwo i wspólne wartości miało wcześniejsze podejście do tego tematu. Podczas dyskusji zastanowimy się, czy i w jaki sposób UE już teraz lub w przyszłości może przeciwdziałać negatywnym zmianom.

Krytyczne spojrzenie na różne przykłady pozwoli lepiej poznać mocne strony społeczności i ich przyszłe potrzeby.

Główne zagadnienia

  • Czym są społeczności uczące się na obszarach wiejskich?
  • Co mamy na myśli, gdy mówimy o "polityce edukacyjnej zorientowanej na miasta"?
  • Czy systemowe podejście negatywnie wpływa na nasze społeczeństwo i wspólne wartości? 
  • Przed jakimi wyzwaniami stoją wiejskie społeczności uczące się i jakie wnioski możemy wyciągnąć z tego, jak te społeczności radziły sobie z wyzwaniami w przeszłości?

Cele dyskusji

Celem tej dyskusji jest rozpoczęcie trwającej obecnie debaty na temat społeczności uczących się na obszarach wiejskich, wyzwań, jakie stoją przed nimi w związku z uczeniem się i nauczaniem.  Nasi eksperci przedstawią teorię oraz konkretne, praktyczne przykłady inicjatyw wspierających wiejskie społeczności uczące się.

Dyskusja jest częścią specjalnego tygodnia (od 6 do 10 czerwca) poświęconego temu samemu tematowi, promowanego przez zespoły EPALE z Austrii, Belgii (NL), Finlandii, Francji, Niemiec, Węgier i Polski.

Serdecznie zapraszamy do dzielenia się swoimi doświadczeniami i inicjatywami.

Możliwość komentowania jest już dostępna, więc zachęcamy do dzielenia się swoimi przemyśleniami, zasobami i wskazówkami.

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Komentarz

Latvijas laukos esmu pamanījusi, ka ļoti lieliska iespēja ir uzņēmumiem, it īpaši ražošanas jomā, piemēram, ražojot produktus - veidot meistarklases un vadīt ekskursijas, kur iespēja jebkuram interesantam iegūt jaunas iemaņas. 

Pa vecumu grupām ir iespēja piedalīties dažādos pulciņos - kā dejošana, dziedāšana, bieži laukos ir augsti attīstīti rokdarbu pulciņi. Ja cilvēki laukos vēlās būt sociāli aktīvi, tad var atrast ko darīt.

Ļoti jauki ir tas, ka pat mazie ciemi cenšas atrast kādas nodarbes saviem iedzīvotājiem, un kultūras darbinieki un pasniedzēji savu darbu dara ar sirdssiltumu, tur veidojās lielas ģimenes un iedzīvotāji ļoti gaida katru tikšanos. Svarīgi ir dalīties savā pieredzē.

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time and space opportunities for school (i.e. students, teachers, governors etc) and community voices (parents, and community members) to join in egalitarian dialogue with local politicians, health workers, engineers, lawyers bus drivers, and so on) to come together to discuss the factors associated with support for or closure/amalgamation of any school being considered for closure. The example is set in Finland where every municipality is expected to have such a discussion and thus pre-empt decisions being made by a small number ( even 1) of policy makers who lack experience of the case in question. For details see Gristy et al., 2020 Educational Research and schooling in Rural Europe, IAP Santarimäki & Törhönen, Ch. 12 'Inclusive and collaborative school network planning in Finland'. https://www.infoagepub.com/products/Educational-Research-and-Schooling-in-Rural-Europe  

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The adult education organisations in our rural area work with a strict minimum of staff, struggling daily with lacking time and budget. There are so many brilliant  ideas, so many initiatives and projects that never come to life because there's not enough time and hands to manage them.

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Thanks for an interesting discussion and comments. The word 'dialogue' was mentioned several times, and could be useful in response to some of the comments. A fundamental issue is the need to learn how to engage in dialogue so that challenging issues, social conflict and economic priorities can be approached by thinking together rather than perpetuating fossilised self-interested claims. As Ewa said, we need to learn to cooperate and sustain initiatives without external funding for example. To do so we need to engage in 'dialogic learning'. This can begin in elementary schools and heir local communities. There is an effective, tried and tested, model within the EC research frameworks, namely the INCLUD-ED project (2006-11) and the focus of many subsequent Erasmus+ projects across Europe.

A brief, accessible summary is here:

 https://www.step4seas.org/_files/ugd/8957d5_f5a2ea7546064fb2b994c49159ba4d62.pdf

IT shows six 'successful actions' which have been shown to succeed in promoting social cohesion and inclusion but also have remarkable positive effects on children's academic achievements, notably in contexts of social and economic deprivation. The key principle is that of egalitarian dialogue in which contributions to the discussion, are valued for their reasoning rather than the status of the speaker. Cath mentioned the work of Ramon Flecha on dialogic learning, and the Learning Communities referred to here are part of this. 1000s of schools have adopted these actions, not only in Europe. A critical feature is that the whole community, _inside and outside_ school are part of the dialogue. It exemplifies a reconceptualisation of traditional and didactic pedagogies in favour of a dialogic approach in which teachers actually listen to their students. These learning communities break down the walls that often come between schools and their communities.

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Šī ir ļoti svarīga un komplicēta tēma, jo laukos ir nesalīdzināmi grūtāk izveidot pietiekami skaitlisku mācību grupu iedzīvotāju skaita un aktīvo iedzīvotāju pārklājuma dēļ. Protams, šobrīd ļoti pieejamu dazādu mācību sasniegšanu nodrošina digitālās iespējs. Bet attālinātās mācības nevar kvalitatīvi un emocionāli aizstāt klātienes mācības, kurās cilvēki tiekas ne tikai lai apgūtu piedāvāto tēmu, bet arī lai socializētos un notiktu savstarpējā zināšanu un pieredzes apmaiņa dzīvā sarunā. Veidotos kontakti un intereses piesaiste grupas dalībniekiem savstarpēji. Lauku teritorijās samazinās cilvēku skaits un sabiedrība kļūst vecāka, daudzi jaunie cilvēki savu darba un ikdienas dzīvi pārceļ uz pilsētām vai to tuvumu, kas sekmē cilvēku aizplūšanu. Tiem, kas paliek laukos, dzīve kļūst arvien dārgāka ne tikai sadzīviskā jomā, bet arī iespējās sevi papildināt intelektuāli. Daudzas mūžīzglītības iespējas paliek klātienē un arī finansiāli nesasniedzamas cilvēkiem ar ierobežotiem ienākumiem un teritorijās,kuras tieši vai netieši, bet valdošās politikas ietekmē kļūst par ekonomisko un pārvaldošo centru nomalēm. Mācības ārpus pilsētām un lielajiem novadu centriem pārsvarā paliek NVO sektora ziņā un cilvēkiem pieejamība dažādiem neformālās mācīšanās pasākumiem ir atkarīga no šo NVO prasmēm piesaistīt projektu naudas,kas sedz šo apmācību izdevumus. Arī NVO kapacitāte lauku teritorijās ir atkarīga no to dalībnieku entuziasma un prasmēm darboties, lai piesaistītu finsējumu dažādiem apmācību projektiem. Tāpēc dažu brīdi šķiet,ka lauku teritorijas un izglītības pieejamība tajās ir realizējama tikai uz to iedzīvotāju aktīvās kopienas entuziasmu. Valdībai unpašvaldībām būtu jādomā ne tikai par projektu konkursiem, kuros ir diezgan sarežģīti nostartēt lai piedāvātu iedzīvotājiem apmācību aktivitātes, bet arī par aktivitātēm,kuras tiek piedāvātas iedzīvotājiem pēc iesaistīšanās vēlmju principa- ir grupa kas grib apgūt kādu no piedāvātajām mācībām viņiem tiek dota tāda iespēja to izmantot maksimāli tuvu faktiskajai dzīves vietai...

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Thank you for this reflection! Maybe we can deepen this discussion. Anna has also underlined the importance of NGOs and their work at the local level. 

Does anyone have other examples? What are the main challenges for NGOs? Funding has been mentioned. Anything else you would like to point out?

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Basically, we raise funds through EU or local projects. However, there is a problem here, because every project is time-limited. Therefore, it should be considered together how to move from such episodic activities of individual projects to continuous activities in the long run.

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Pārceļoties uz dzīvi mazpilsētā, novēroju, ka vietējie iedzīvotāji mēdz būt ļoti skeptiski pret piedāvātajām aktivitātēm. Viņiem vajadzīgs ilgāks laiks, lai pieņemtu, uzticētos un tad pamēģinātu piedalīties pašiem. Nereti tas notiek tikai tāpēc, ka kāds no kopienas ir uzdrošinājies, iesaistījies un kļuvis par tādu kā "aģentu". Taču pārmaiņas ienāk "no ārpuses", līdz ar jaunāku paaudzi un atsevišķiem aktīvistiem.

Pilnībā piekrītu par iesaistīšanās vēlmju principu - mācību piedāvājumam ir jāizriet no kopienas vajadzībām. Tas savukārt paredz, ka iedzīvotājiem ir jāspēj apzināties savas vajadzības, formulēt mērķus un vīziju gan individuāli, gan kopienas līmenī. Manuprāt, tas ir ļoti būtisks aspekts, ka attīstību nosaka paši iedzīvotāji. Jautājums, kā attīstīt šādu vēlmi un spēju uzņemties atbildību, ticību, ka kopiena ir spējīga attīstīties un veidot savu nākotni?..

Mani sākotnējie plāni bija dot savas specifiskās zināšanas un prasmes vietējai kopienai, taču es redzu, ka vienlaikus nākas meklēt veidus, kā iedrošināt, iedvesmot, radīt apstākļus iniciatīvām. 

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Although the author is right, a lot depends on the people themselves, their activities and motivation. There is a national-level training project that is available in every municipality and there is also a training coordinator who guides you and fill out documents if necessary.

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When it comes to adult education in rural areas, the non-governmental sector plays an important role in Latvia - local NGOs are usually the driving force that involves adults in various non-formal and informal learning activities. NGOs, in cooperation with local authorities, usually also offer various educational programs.

I think various EU education projects (eg., Erasmus +, Nordplus, etc.) promote the development of educational communities in rural areas. Projects are also one of the ways in which adults are motivated to participate in educational activities in building learning communities.

For example, the NGO I represent has also contributed to the education of rural social workers within the Nordplus project so that they can provide quality services to their clients. We are currently preparing materials to promote emotional resilience as part of the Erasmus + project EMER. One of the target groups of the project is the rural population, for whom training will also be organized.

I think that in Latvia there are many examples of NGOs promoting education in rural areas.

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Hi everyone,  there's a good example how community learning can be adapted in Czechia through so called Local Action Groups (MAS). This community-based project is supported from the Ministry of Regional Development,  via EU funds, and it is actually working well for the past 20 years.  The project works on municipality level and gets a variety of social, educational and private stakeholders and partners work together, creating local goal-oriented networks.  As a part of that, and based on local community needs, the MAPs are able to organize different types of educational and development activities,  contributing to enhance local economy,  social wellness or agriculture. The demand for the activities goes from bottom up, and the MAP management is actually trying to process the needs and come up with solutions. Also, it gives opportunities to local education providers,  schools etc. to participate. 

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microproject management, work-life balance, how to include excluded children, sociotherapy,  various technical skills and many others.  There are also intergenerational programs,  one of them is called Paths to school where children,  parents and grandparents map local paths to school in time, history,  space and geography.

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I'd like to share our EAEA publication on access to adult learning in rural areas with you: https://eaea.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/EAEA-Outreach-and-Access-ba…

In our publication, we argue that there is a lot of focus on learning in cities and that in the process the particular needs of learners, but also of learning providers in rural areas, have taken a back seat. Through examples from Poland, Ireland, Slovenia and Portugal, we look at barriers and challenges to access to learning, but also how participation can be increased and communities can be strengthened through adult learning.

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Having had a look at the macro and meso levels, we would like to know from you, what do you consider to be the needs of rural learners?

What do we have to do differently when trying to address those needs, compared to urban learners? Do have to do anything different at all?

Let us know about your experience!

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Zoltan mentioned that it was needed to rebuilt connection between communities, elevate "the spirit" of the community. That makes sense to me :-) And I also liked Gina's idea in the introduction that the connection between formal and non-formal (informal?) education is important.

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The NGO I represent has conducted a study on the educational needs of seniors in rural areas:
1) The greatest interest of the course is in how to use a computer and the internet. Based on the Latvian experience, computer fun clubs are recommended for seniors who want to improve their computer and Internet skills, be in the middle of new meetings and interesting events. The aim of such activities is to interest the general public in the possibilities of acquiring and applying e-skills, to inform where and how to use or improve existing e-skills, as well as to find out about e-services and their acquisition opportunities;
2) The second most important direction of the educational needs of seniors is related to leisure opportunities and a healthy lifestyle.

Seniors believe that learning is a good way to remain active and it is a good way to meet and get to know new people.

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A bigger problem is motivation and possibly other problems suppressing the desire to learn. It should be more necessary to discuss and explain to people what is the added value of learning and benefits. They may be of different nature - social, financial, etc. depending on the learning objective.

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Bardzo się cieszę, że EPALE porusza tak ważny temat. Społeczności uczące się na obszarach wiejskich, stanowią dużą grupę całej ludności na wsi. Formy edukacji się zmieniają, ludzi chcących zdobywać wiedzę przybywa, ale przemiany w tym temacie są też nie uniknione. Od jakiegoś czasu obserwuję np. zamykanie szkół i zmniejszanie ilości klas w szkołach rolniczych, co przekłada się na coraz mniejszą liczbę osób z wykształceniem rolniczym - branżowym, to z kolei zmienia cały klimat wsi i powoduje duże zmiany restrukturyzacyjne, ograniczanie ilości małych gospodarstw, ale też szukanie przez rolników, nowych pomysłów na życie na wsi. Czy ten kierunek jest właściwy? Czas najlepiej to zweryfikuje.

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Adult education can be a really important tool. It can, for example, keep and transfer traditional skills, but also introduce new technologies, organic and sustainable ways of living etc. I think Ewa is doing excellent work in this area. Ewa, if you see this, could you tell us a bit more about your activities?

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We have been trying to establish local and regional partnerships in ALE through the REGALE project (https://regalenetwork.eu/). Some of the good practice initiatives do come from rural areas, for example, practices from the vast network of Ireland's AONTAS, some of them from regional levels, with a high emphasis on the local stakeholders.

 

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Slovenian Institute for Adult Education which currently celebrates 30-th anniversary coordinates ALE in form of local community groups. They fill the gap of learning in rural areas and their empowerment. More at https://sk.acs.si (see map at https://sk.acs.si/zemljevid). The SC model is known all over Europe while its Slovenian particularity is in obligatory public presentation of the added value which is particularly strong in rural areas. Why? As it mobilizes learning and action at the same time. The outcome are rural initiatives, publications, associations, videos  - some in English  They are listed  at https://sk.acs.si/objave. Current and the future accent may be in their potential to respond to climate changes as they are not an artificial (and dispersed target group) but a proxy to a real community, able to set common goals and achieve them through collective action.  

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In the Czech Republic, a lot of attention has recently been paid to socially excluded localities. 
The current inequalities have significant implications in the long run. Policies that aim to reduce socio-economic inequalities in education should be applied consistently.
Inequalities in education represent one of the most pressing problems to which the strategy of the education policy of the Czech Republic responds.
And also. The availability of quality education is key to rural development.
The priority is to increase participation in pre-school education, increase the level of student literacy, reduce the number of early school leavers and vocational training
(early school leaving) and reducing the proportion of young people outside
education and outside the labor market, increasing participation in further education.
There are many projects, eg to support employment in remote regions.

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Hi Jana,

 

this is a great point you are making, that has been made by another participant in another language. The challenges can indeed only be tackled from an inclusive perspective, bringing together as many fields as possible. Pedagogues, demographers, ministries, city planners and politicians have to work together on a multi-layered solution.

Silo solutions will not suffice in the long run.

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I agree that rural places are very good contexts for innovation, there is perhaps a freedom that comes from being away from urban centres. The work of Ewa in Poland is an example of this. Beyond Europe, there is some interesting work about innovation in education in rural communities in South Africa published by Dipane Hlalele 

I would like to add a further example of where important development work is happening in rural areas. Guiseppina Cannella and the INDIRE team in Italy are doing some innovative work with IT in teaching and learning in remote communities.. 

https://www.indire.it/en/2020/10/30/il-contributo-della-ricerca-indire-…

 

 

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Here are a few links to deepen the inputs from our guest speakers:

Cath Gristy, Linda Hargreaves and Silvie R. Kučerová (Eds) “Educational Research and Schooling in Rural Europe: An Engagement with Changing Patterns of Education, Space, and Place”: https://www.infoagepub.com/products/Educational-Research-and-Schooling-in-Rural-Europe

Project Learning Communities in Rural Europe: https://learning-communities.eu/

Project’s handbook: http://learning-communities.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/LCRE_Handbook_E.pdf

Ziarno (Seeds) http://ziarno.grzybow.pl/

"Folk High Schools facing Anthropocene”: http://ziarno.grzybow.pl/images/publikacje/projektowe/EUL_FHS_of_the_Anthropocene.pdf

"Folk High School of the 21st century, Tradition, Contemporaneity and Challenges for the Future”: http://ziarno.grzybow.pl/images/publikacje/projektowe/eng_strona.pdf

 

Hope you enjoyed the discussion!

Claudia (EPALE Moderator)

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Dear Gina, Ewa, Cath, Zoltan, thanks for inspiring shared initiatives, project, opinions. Zoltan and Ewa mentioned the positive sides of learning in rural areas (relationship, tradition, values, ecosystem, respect to environment..) I would add that there are others benefits of education in rural areas. Rural schools are usually smaller and have lower pupil numbers than urban schools. At the same time, they are more likely to have pupils with lower socio-economic benefits and to face staff shortages and a lower proportion of qualified teachers. However, teaching in rural schools can also have a positive effect. Smaller rural schools can help to create more developed cooperation within the team of teachers and pupils and a sense of belonging to the school. Due to the fact that rural schools usually have a small number of pupils, they often combine different grades into one class and pupils can learn from each other.. Teacher education students must develop effective teaching skills in rural areas. It is also important to bring schools and teachers together in a community of practice and to use new technologies.

I have questions. According Your experience, what has the greatest effect of helping rural areas in their development? What is going well and what should be continued? Are there any specifics in adult areas regarding adult education? Thank You!

 

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Hi Jana. Thank you for your questions. I agree that there are so many benefits of having schools on a small scale scale; multiage classes, small 'human' scale education, good opportunities for dialogue with pupils/teachers/families/communities and so on.

I agree that teacher education is important. research and experience shows that recruiting and retaining teachers for rural areas can be a challenge. Lots of evidence from places like Australia has been published (see for example the work of Helen Wildy, Simone White and Phil Roberts.

Preparing teachers for multi-age classrooms is important. I recommend the work here of Andrea Raggl from Austria and Guiseppina Cannella from Italy. (in Gristy C., Hargreaves, L. and Kucerova, SR (2020) Educational research and schooling in rural Europe. IAP) https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02607476.2021.1928482

There are interesting developments in the UK where the government has agreed a 'presumption against closure' - so the assumption will be that a school is not closed.

In Finland, communities have to consider the impact of closing a school across all service areas. this encourages places to consider very carefully the value of a school to a rural community.

There are good studies from Czechia from Silvie Rita Kucerova.

I think very important work and progress is happening around the world in rural (and urban areas) in the development of democratic communities through dialogue. I recommend reading about the remarkable learning communities praxis inspired by the work of Ramon Flecha (and initiated with EU funding). 

An introduction can be found here on the STEP4SEAS website.  https://www.step4seas.org/_files/ugd/8957d5_f5a2ea7546064fb2b994c49159ba4d62.pdf

And there is a good book

 reference https://www.schooleducationgateway.eu/files/esl/downloads/13_INCLUD-ED_Book_on_SEA.pdf

Another area of interesting new development that is worth looking at is the impact of the repopulation of rural areas through the COVID pandemic and migration. There is lots to learn from rural communities embracing new residents. You might like to look at the work of Gry Paulgaard from the very north of Norway.

There is a long tradition in rural parts of Spain where learning communities include schools, the families and community residents. So there are learning 'centres' which include adult learning. I recommend the work of Begona Vigo Arrazola and Juana Soriano-Bozalongo, which can be found in our book and also online.

I hope this is of help. Do let me know if you have further questions. Cath

 

I would like to add a further example of where important development work is happening in rural areas. Guiseppina Cannella and the INDIRE team in Italy are doing some innovative work with IT in teaching and learning in remote communities.. 

https://www.indire.it/en/2020/10/30/il-contributo-della-ricerca-indire-…

INDIRE have also done some great work in support of small schools in remote areas in the form of a manifesto https://www.indire.it/en/2017/06/12/the-small-schools-group-together-an…

 

 

 

 

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The composition of the population from rural area is very much changed, now only a little part of this population is working in agriculture because the agriculture became industralised farming and the population lost the skills needed for producing their own food, by small scale farming, and the skills to maintain the European cultural landscape. The development in the rural areas now has to focus not to the increasing of the production by ha but to the diversification of the production and to the reconstruction of the ecosystems. The adult education has to focus in my opinion to the knowledges necessary for living in a natural (rural) area. 

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That's a very good point, Zoltan! It does seem that adult education has an important role to play in diversifying knowledge. I think many adult learning providers are already doing it, for example by focusing on protecting natural ecosystems or supporting a green transition. There are some great examples from the Finnish Association for Rural Culture and Education https://msl.fi/ and several Polish folk high schools, for example the Ecological Folk High School in Grzybow http://www.eul.grzybow.pl/ 

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Hello everyone!

This discussion is part of a special Focus Week (from 6 to 10 June) dedicated to Learning Communities in Rural Areas, promoted by EPALE teams from Austria, Belgium (NL), Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, and Poland.

Thanks to each and every one of them for this idea!

To discover more, please visit:

https://epale.ec.europa.eu/en/blog/epale-focus-week-learning-communities-rural-areas

Claudia (EPALE Moderator)

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