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Značaj tranzicionih kvalifikacija za odrasle

15/01/2018
po EPALE MONTENEGRO
Jezik: HR
Document available also in: EN LV PL NL

/hr/file/eqf-level-5-epaleEQF Level 5 EPALE

EQF Level 5 EPALE

Dana 9-10. novembra 2017, EPALE tematski koordinator, Simon Broek, prisustvovao je prvom seminaru CHAIN 5 u Lutonu (UK). CHAIN 5 je međunarodna zajednica prakse u kojoj se dijele znanje i iskustvo koji se tiču kvalifikacija na nivou 5 Evropskog kvalifikacionog okvira . Ova zajednica prakse je osnovana u decembru 2013. godine nakon što je Cedefop sproveo svoju studiju o kvalifikacijama nivoa 5 EQF-a. Simon je podijelio svoje iskustvo i ono što je naučio na ovom događaju.

 

CHAIN 5 se održao u novembru 2017. godine in Lutonu, UK a fokus je bio na teoriji i praksi koje se odnose na učenje na radu i na tome kako ono može ojačati uloga nivoa 5 kvalifikacija za različite ciljne grupe; na koji način ono može povećati kvalitet (imajući na umu pitanja kao što je prohodnost među nivoima), i na koji način kvalifikacije mogu biti više relevantne na tržištu rada za sve vrste polaznika kao dio “cjeloživotnog razvoja”.

Postojali su brojni dragocjeni doprinosi u pogledu istraživanja i prakse. Što se tiče prakse, na primjer, omogućene su radionice za diskusiju praktičnog obrazovanja kod poslodavca u Engleskoj i holandskih institucionalnih modela za pružanje kvalifikacija nivoa 5 na modularizovani i fleksibilan način. Perspektiva istraživanja pokrivena je bila predstavljanjem Tandem projekta koji se odnosi na puteve učenja za zaposlene i predstavljanjem nastavnika i trenera u učenju na radu.

 

Značaj nivoa 5 za olakšanje tranzicija

Za odrasle lica, kvalifikacije nivoa 5 EQF-a imaju naročito značajnu ulogu. Ove kvalifikacije omogućavaju puteve tranzicije iz škole u posao, iz stručnog obrazovanja u visoko obrazovanje, sa posla nazad u školu. Pored toga, u Evropi postoje raznovrsne kvalifikacije sa različitim orijentacijama (npr. pristup tržištu rada, dalje učenje). Ono što sam saznao na seminaru jeste da se u brojnim zemljama mnogo toga dešava na nivou pet, a ne samo u kratkom ciklusu visokog obrazovanja. To zaista predstavlja tranzicionu kvalifikaciju koja povezuje više stručno obrazovanje i visoko obrazovanje, stručno i profesionalno obrazovanje, poslovne akademije i tržište rada. Ove tranzicije takođe postaju sve više značajne budući da su neka zanimanja u riziku od nestajanja zbog slabog interesovanja. Ljudima je potrebno da budu sposobni i da im se omoguće brže tranzicije za karijeru i onda kada je potrebno da fleksibilnost odradi svoje. Kvalifikacije nivoa 5 u ovom kontekstu ima ključnu ulogu za:

  • Odrasle koji žele da nadgrade svoje vještine, kompetencije i kvalifikacije (horizontalna tranzicija);
  • Odrasle koji žele da promijene svoju karijeru (vertikalna tranzicija).

/hr/file/level-learning-outcomes-cedefopLevel of learning outcomes Cedefop

Level of learning outcomes Cedefop

Izvor: Cedefop (2014), Kvalifikacije nivoa 5: napredak u karijeri ili visokom obrazovanju

 

Naročito kada kvalifikacije nivoa 5 uzimaju u obzir učenje kroz rad u svojim brojnim oblicima, u zavisnosti od situacije sada i u bliskoj budućnosti, učenje može biti najbolje usklađeno sa potrebama odraslih i konkretnom situacijom.

 

Učenje kroz rad i upotreba terminologije

Međutim, kada se diskutuje o učenju kroz rad i praktičnom obrazovanju kod poslodavca u Evropi, često smo prilično izgubljeni u prevodu jer slični koncepti označavaju različite stvari. Hans Daale (CHAIN 5) je predložio tri kategorije koje se mogu naći u vezi sa kvalifikacijama na nivou 5:

  • Školsko obrazovanje: Učenik je upisan u formalni obrazovni program a komponente programa su zasnovane na radnoj praksi. Ne postoji formalni ugovor sa poslodavcem.
  • Dualno obrazovanje: Studijski program vodi ka sticanju formalne kvalifikacije, ali postoje dva ugovora – jedan sa poslodavcem, a drugi sa obrazovnom institucijom. Polaznik je i učenik i zaposleni.
  • Učenje kroz rad: Učenik ima formalni ugovor sa zaposlenim; kvalifikacija se odnosi na radno mjesto i napredak u karijeri unutar preduzeća/sektor. Učenje može biti neformalno, vodi ka sticanju sertifikata koji mogu biti potvrđeni i kombinovani u potpunu formalnu kvalifikaciju.

Razlika između ove tri kategorije pokazuje da se najveći dio učenja održava na radnom mjestu, i da nije direktno povezano sa formalnim obrazovnim programima. Upravo su to oni programi koji mogu biti relevantni za odrasle radnike, budući da im omogućavaju prilike da uče na poslu i napreduju u karijeri.

Pogledajte prezentacije sa seminara CHAIN 5 


Simon Broek je uključen u nekoliko evropskih istraživačkih projekata u oblasti obrazovanja, tržišta rada i osiguranja. Radio je kao savjetnik u Evropskoj komisiji, Evropskom parlamentu i evropskim agencijama za pitanja koja se odnose na obrazovne politike, cjeloživotno učenje i tržište rada, a trenutno je generalni partner na Institutu za podršku politici Ocham.

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  • Slika korisnika Zane Katrīne Kļaviņa
    Manuprāt darbā balstīta mācīšanās Latvijā nav pietiekami populāra - tai nav pietiekami daudz iespēju. Zinu, ka Vācijā, piemēram, duālā izglītība ir ļoti izplatīta izglītības forma. Mācoties strādājot, veidojas daudz ciešāka saikne starp teoriju un praksi un mācības kopumā varētu izrādīties jēgpilnākas par parastām akadēmiskām mācībām augstākās izglītības iestādēs.
  • Slika korisnika Hümeyra BAYKAN
    Normal 0 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE

     
    Normal 0 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE The TANDEM project aims at enhancing the flexibility in learning pathways across education systems (from EQF levels 4 to 5 and 6) connecting Vocational Education and Training (VET), Higher Education (HE) by taking into consideration the demands of the labour market.

    The project mainly focused on the need for education and training in the labor market, how to offer workers and apprentices learning pathways where they can take a next step to advanced vocational qualifications. Even though higher-level VET qualifications refer to highly skilled workers, this does not mean necessarily that those skills can be obtained only by higher education institutes/degrees.

    As Tandem shows, employers and employees invest in a substantial bundle of trainings, leading to a group of certificates. Depending of what the labor market (and the job) needs employees fill a “port-folio with VET certificates” based upon courses, training and work-experience. For employers the certification/recognition is a minor issue; they expect immediate results. Although the EQF/NQF aims to promote flexible learning pathways and focuses on learning outcomes independently of where the qualification has been acquired, no common arrangements exist for credit transfer and accumulation for qualifications related to the EQF. This makes it more difficult to move from one learning setting to another; such transitions are, however, fundamental for individuals who experience several transitions throughout their learning and employment careers. The growing internationalization of products and services value chains has triggered an increasing number of international (sectoral) qualifications industry-based training and certifications, based on standards developed by international companies or sectoral organizations.

    TANDEM recommends:

    •Close cooperation with companies and educational institutions: An important aspect that reflects one of the basic deficits is the gap between training and employment with a shortage of skills and qualifications of interest to the labour market. The training system is mostly not providing agile and well-oriented responses to the changes that are occurring in the labour market.

    •Education matters are mostly transversal and in charge of several ministries; absolutely necessary to have a platform for LLL in a country, having representatives of all ministries on board for shaping pathways and recognition diplomas and certificates outside the formal system, whit involvement of business organization. A European directive on how to recognize competences acquired from all types of learning and training is needed as well to issue certificates which could also be used as parts of national/international formal studies and joint degrees incl. recognition and accreditation of skills acquired through professional experience.

    •Involving the business world in the necessary reform processes for the simplification of EQF; EQF is still too much considered to be an education policy, falling under the responsibility of the educational sector driven by governments and the decision-making role of labor market side is often weak. The main focus should be placed on evidence of competences acquired rather than on the learning pathway; and building bridges between formal, non-formal and informal learning, leading also to the validation of learning outcomes acquired through experience.  The implementation should respond quickly to the rapid changes that are occurring at companies.

    Besides; the business world, as well as VET providers are more and more concerned that the numbers of graduates are growing in the HE (higher education) programs as already observed even in countries like Germany   “duale Berufsausbildung” with high reputation. In Bulgaria: 54% percent of the university graduates have jobs, which don't require a university degree; similar in TR and UK, studies indicate half of all university graduates are doing non-graduate jobs. On the other side students drop out of higher education without completing their studies. Though data availability and comparability still pose challenges, available completion rates range from 48 % to 88 %. In Germany 28% of students of any one year (in many technical courses at 50% or higher) currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at higher education institutions.

    So it is actually highly recommended, to have a VET degree at level 5, to be seen as Higher VET by linking academic and vocational competences to each other. The traditional notion of white/blue collar with the concept of separate (higher/lower) skill sets is no longer appropriate to current conditions, has serious repercussions on VET students’ capacity and must be revised. Students/apprentices need the right tools representing alternatives more precisely attuned to job market demands to keep up with technological and economic change. For many people, VET remains a second option, and only a minority of workers has opportunities to develop new skills.

    EQF level 5 offers possibilities to build flexible learning pathways, creates a potential for expansion of VET at higher levels to better reflect the qualifications demanded by the businesses. New impulses can be created by means of incorporating of elements  of both VET and HE, a promising platform that can facilitate the step-through to advanced vocational qualifications without workers/students have to “invest” in a higher education degree. “Level 5 area” could be continuum for all supplementary qualifications and interdisciplinary skills acquired through business education, in-company training and vocational courses with effective procedures for recognizing skills acquired beyond formal education.

    It is becoming increasingly important in countries that are critical of their education system and think of modernization, that it is necessary to develop VET programs at their own national level 5. VET provider itself could develop programs that are suitable for those with a VET4 diploma, strongly with the focus on the labor market, with the help and input from the (regional) field of work. VET can only become more attractive if people rely on its results. The common trade coin is the learning outcomes. The step from VET4 to a higher level is often a difficult one, and it demands a specific approach in the government legislation and therefor the overall national strategy.