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EPALE - Plataforma electrónica dedicada a la enseñanza para adultos en Europa


Adult education: from learning to participate, to participating through learning

por Regina EBNER
Idioma: EN
Document available also in: DE EL HR HU FR ET CS

/es/file/civic-engagement-epaleCivic engagement EPALE

Civic engagement EPALE


EAEA Policy Assistant Silvia Tursi on the role of adult learning as a way to participate in society.


In the modern asset of society, governance is replacing government, and direct democracy is being encouraged. For citizens this means that they are increasingly expected to have an active participation in their community, not only concerning policy issues but also everyday life.

The PIAAC study has evidenced a clear correlation between ‘trust’ and ‘political efficacy’ with skills level. In particular, low basic skills have been found to correlate with low trust in institutions, and low individual belief in the ability to have an impact on society.


Adult education and citizen engagement

The importance of education as the key factor for predicting different forms of political participation has been emphasised in different studies. Today the role of adult education in promoting active citizenship appears crucial, not only with regards to those with low skill level, but to all citizens who are called to participate in society.

However, the way active citizenship is promoted through adult education, reflects various perspectives, which are developed in different practices and initiatives.

On the one hand, adult education promotes learning as a necessary prerequisite to access participation in democratic processes. In this case learning can address different needs – the development of literacy and numeracy, the improvement of basic skills that allow participation in society, as well as trainings and discussions on specific political issues and topics. This implies that individuals should first learn some participatory skills, before they can learn and speak as citizens. It also suggests that these people are encouraged to activate and acquire the competences identified by the ‘rational community’ to be good citizens. This vision implies the existence of a norm of what it means to be a good citizen.

On the other hand, adult education promotes a vision in which learning itself is considered a form of participation in the community and not just a tool to prepare for participation. This perspective promotes citizenship as commitment in the ‘community of practices’, and participation in joint activities.


Examples of learning as a tool for active participation


Lire et Écrire

An example of practice in which learning serves as a tool to access active participation can be seen in the Belgian initiative Lire et Écrire, which provided a Welcome to Belgium Kit on different themes relevant to everyday life in Belgium: living together, housing, health, education, employment and social security, everyday life, residency statuses and migration, and institutions. The kit targets mainly newcomers to Belgium, but also people with Belgian origins, and in general, it is a tool for generating reflection on society, with the aim to encourage or develop active participation in society.


The People's Meeting

Often, projects and initiatives are developed in a way in which the two perspectives are interconnected. An interesting example to look at is ‘The People's Meeting’, Folkemødet – organised since 2011 in Bornholm, Denmark. This event is a special opportunity to celebrate, promote and develop ideas about democracy, active citizenship and non-formal adult learning.

The People's Meeting is a political festival providing a platform for open debates between politicians, businesses, NGOs and common citizens. It aims at strengthening democracy and dialogue in the country, with free informal seminars and meetings. Although the initiative is coordinated by the authorities of Bornholm, it is practically organised by organisations, political parties and groups who express the will to be involved. In this sense, the participants are also the organisers, as an example of democracy in real life.


100 Steps Towards Finnish Future

Similarly, the project ‘100 Steps Towards Finnish Future’ suggested a new method of citizenship education within the adult education culture in Finland. The main idea was to engage people in civic discussions in local adult education centres regardless of their age and background. The open-access discussions were planned as a way to introduce the adult education centres and their work to a new target of participants. All centres that expressed interest were invited to take part in the project, and instead of the 10 discussions planned, 29 discussions were organised, showing enthusiasm in the initiative.

The outputs of the discussions were delivered to the policymakers of each city where the discussion was organised, and citizens had the opportunity to start improving their participatory skills.

Those few examples suggest an overview of different ways that can be used in adult education to promote active citizenship, and to encourage individuals to develop, increase and challenge their participatory skills.


What is your idea of citizenship education, and how is it used in your organisation to help individuals to get opportunities to take an active role in the community? Share in the comments below.

Silvia Tursi is an EAEA policy assistant. She is a graduate in Political Sciences and International Relations, with further studies in Education, and has experience as a trainer in European projects and as project and research assistant in various organisations.

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Mostrando del 1 - 4 al 4
  • Imagen de Kristina Jovicic-Grmas
    Pre svega, slažem se sa Vašom tvrdnjom da je za polaznike u obrazovanju odraslih najpre bitno sticanje funkcionalne pismenosti i bazičnih intelektualnih i socijalnih kompetencija, koje im omogućavaju dalju socijalnu integraciju i tranziciju ka tržištu rada. Tek nakon toga, oni se mogu aktivno i odgovorno uključiti u građanskom životu. Uostalom, to predviđa i jedan od očekivanih opštih ishoda funkcionalnog obrazovanja odraslih, odnosno stručnih kompetencija koje se stiču ostvarivanjem predviđenog nastavnog plana i programa za ovaj vid obrazovanja. Mislim tu pre svega na građansku odgovornost za demokratiju, koja predviđa jednu ovakvu participaciju, zasnovanu na znanju o političkim i društvenim vrednostima. U Vašem tekstu pominjete i primere prakse u kojima učenje služi kao alat za pristup aktivnom učešću u zajednici. U vezi sa tim, navodim i primere iz vlastitog dugogodišnjeg iskustva u radu sa odraslima, koji su se itekako pokazali značajnim za pripadnike naših ciljnih grupa, ali i same edukatore. U pitanju su dva Festivala obrazovanja odraslih za koje bi se moglo reći da su te 2001. i 2002. godine, predstavljali primere najveće aktivnosti u obrazovanju odraslih. Pomenuti događaj, sa čuvenom petočasovnom berzom obrazovanja odraslih, obuhvatio je svojevremeno na desetine centara i imao izuzetnu posećenost koja se brojala u hiljadama. Drugi primer je nezaobilazni, i projekat od izuzetnog značaja, projekat Druga šansa koji je dao osnove sistemu koji danas imamo u obrazovanju odraslih. Benefiti od ovih, ali i mnogih drugih primera dobre prakse ovog tipa, i dan danas imaju pozitivnog odjeka u animiranju polaznika različitih ciljnih grupa koje u našem centru okupljamo i svakodnevno uspešno edukujemo.
    Thank you. In my view one does not become an active citizen just like that since being an active citizen is not a state but a process depending on constant education, (gaining cognitive competencies) emotions, building attachment....and above all by upgrading or adding common goals and activities . At Slovenian Third Age University, established 35 years ago, as a common endeavour of different generations and different experts and volunteers we are convinced that structures created by citizens having established a clear mission serve as a platform for citizens' activities. Slovenian U3A chose study circle as its basic format with cognitive and activity goals serving local development, Moreover, over the last decade, Slovenian U3A has been conceptualising and dealing with socially engaged education and socially engaged art of older people ( social interaction within educational processes,, carefully selected public sites etc) that often get transformed into social practices where U3A's students act as politicians, active citizens, ethnographers etc for community's well being. Slovenian U3A stages a number of civil dialogues, sets up mutually supported structures and networks for learning and acting ( Each-one-teach-one). Slovenian U3A enacts active ageing on study programmes based on exploratory learning (understanding public space and its role), critical geragogy, silver economy, advocacy, let's become active citizen, critical thinking etc.
  • Imagen de Elisabetta Cannova
    Thank you for these contributions, and beyond the national programmes or targeted festivals, when working at micro level, and in peripheral areas, real life and civic participation show us a different prospect (how to contrast the fatal attraction of the town). Supporting the local cultural events and festivals in the rural area of my region (Latium) through an informal learning provision targeted to the community’s organisers, we are managing to engage adults in self-directed learning sessions aiming at valorising the cultural heritage, tangible and intangible, of the own communities. I still don’t know if this just started pilot (January ’19) will produce an improved active participation in the society, but I can confirm the fundamental role of the citizens’ associations, formal or informal, motivated by different interests, in our case committed in culture and performing arts, sustainable tourism, and inclusive citizenship. Another core issue in this field experience is the external support of the Municipality and the consensus about the key role of adults’ education… But I’m a lucky woman, the current Major was a teacher!
  • Imagen de Kristaps Otersons
    You mentioned Folkemødet in Denmark. In Latvia, we have "Lampa" (lamp) for the 5th consecutive year, the talk or conversation festival where any organisation or individual can bring up a topic to be discussed in the proposed format, be it debates, panel discussion, game or whatever. The overall  condition to participate is to help democracy, to be open, to listen to every opinion. OK, you need also to be topical, And I can read on their website that "eight democracy festivals from the Nordic and Baltic regions, including the Conversation festival LAMPA, and a European-wide festival have joined their forces and established the International Democracy Festivals Association." Nice, this goes further.