chevron-down chevron-left chevron-right chevron-up home circle comment double-caret-left double-caret-right like like2 twitter epale-arrow-up text-bubble cloud stop caret-down caret-up caret-left caret-right file-text


Electronic Platform for Adult Learning in Europe




Language: EN
Document available also in: CS

Posted by Martin BARTHEL


© Martin Barthel
There are many way to define non-formal education or to determine its difference from and relation with formal and informal education. At the same time, there is no comprehensive model with enough explanatory power to address these different perspectives. Also, SMART as a concept could be understood and utilized in different ways.

With this in mind, our team has developed one tailored conceptualization of SMART, benefiting from the rich portfolio of practice cases provided by our project partners. The presented conceptualization covers the original four EduCitizens categories (citizenship, engagement, participation and education) and were used as case categories so that the initials could make it S.M.A.R.T.:

S: Stakeholder diversity, Social inclusion and intercultural dialogue (actor-oriented) that could cover citizenship
M: Mindfulness, awareness, discovery (pre-action-oriented)
A: Action, engagement and empowerment (action-oriented) that covers engagement and participation
R: Reflection, self-experience and learning (post-action-oriented) that could cover education
T: Technology-supported, digital, virtual (tool-oriented)

The eBook was edited by Wojciech Pajak, Demet Soylu, Tunc Medeni and Martin Barthel.

Please find more information about the project on our homepage.

Resource Author(s): 
Wojciech Pajak
Demet Soylu
Tunc Medeni
Martin Barthel (
Publication Date:
Saturday, 5 January, 2019
Language of the document:
Type of resource: 
Open Educational Resources
Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Epale SoundCloud Share on LinkedIn