This subject tells us that we need to change our perspective. Because the human brain changes what it perceives when it changes perspective.
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If Industry 4.0 is a paradigm that gives us clues to make predictions about the future, it will be the most fundamental paradigm to begin to discuss the basis of the education of the future. As Harari emphasized in his 21 Lessons for the 21st Century; does the basic education cover “only reading and writing or also computer programming or playing the violin? Or cover “only six years of primary school or everything up to the doctoral level?”
Here we can foresee that even the hierarchy of needs of Maslow will change radically. Education, on a fundamental basis, is an issue that governments, policy-makers, non-governmental organizations, and international organizations will have to deal with.
In this study, the in-service training and learning policies, which we call institutional training, will be pointed out that evolve to the concept of training 4.0. concept. The aim is to discuss the impact of training 4.0, which is also called a lifelong learning approach, in the companies and the structure of their organizations based on the training needs analysis.
Keywords: Educational Technologies, Education 4.0, Industry 4.0, Training Needs Analysis, Institutional Training
1.1 Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 is a process that starts with the realization of technological automation systems in the industry with the introduction of data exchanges through cyber-physical systems and redefining the workforce with social changes. The main components of Industry 4.0 which will manage this process are; Internet of Things (IoT-connection of everything meaningful to the internet), Autonomous Robots (called Kobot, who speaks with and learns from each other), Additive Manufacturing (3d Printer Technologies), Augmented Reality (the appearance of the direction on the glasses and information flow on the screen), Big Data and Analytics, Horizontal and Vertical System Integration.
At the beginning of the 1800s, small-scale enterprises with a traditional production approach brought the industrial revolutions with the discovery of the steam engine and mechanization. In the early 20th century, the industrial revolution was transformed into an organizational structure based on the division of labour called the industrial revolution and by the development of the first programmable logical controller (PLC) technology (in the early 1970s), manufacturing systems were automated and the 3rd Industrial Revolution started. The 4th Industrial Revolution, which has changed the rules of the game with a revolutionary approach, has started today, such as the Internet of Things (IOT), Augmented Reality, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Big Data, 3D Printing (3D Printing). These technologies, which are indicative of the structural transformation of human labour, have brought concepts such as creation, management and sustainability to the very heart of the human holistic system.
In 2011, Industry 4.0, which was called a development move in the German Hannover Fair in order to reinforce China's economic market in the sense of industrial production, has suggested that there are three ways to deal with China:
1st find the fastest way to deliver products to the market (shorten time to market),
2nd increase flexibility and
3rd boost efficiency.
In fact, although these definitions define changes in industrial production, there clearly defined new competencies here. In order to offer the product to the market in the fastest way, it is necessary to manage the innovation management processes in a good way, to increase the flexible production and to have the ability to shape the production for the customer's every need. What is mentioned here is to do what China cannot do, is to produce a wide variety of products on the same lines without stopping production lines. In other words, to provide flexible production lines that provide products that can meet the customer's specific requests. Besides flexibility, the designed systems will be able to work with unique efficiency. By means of communication-capable sensors, machines can communicate with each other and take actions autonomously (Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)) and all processes will be monitored in real-time, it will be possible to install systems that are close to the correct that can manage the expected diversity. To achieve this, the human will slowly withdraw from the system, “the sweat of the forehead” starts to leave the place “to the sweat of the mind”*. The necessity of using different competencies of human beings that has not emerged before is now coming up.
It is necessary to address the understanding of education in companies from this philosophical thought; what will be the investments for increasing this mental power, the need to analyze the right needs for individuals to choose the right training has started to become widespread. With the emergence of unmanned factories, it is foreseen that many professions will disappear and new professions will emerge until today and even the professions that futurists said to be in the future is now in our lives. Robots capable of providing services far beyond the capabilities expected from the skilled labor force in the production sector until the fourth industrial revolution, have now surpassed the very skilled work of the workforce and have advanced enough to challenge even the reasoning skills of the people. In such an industrial structure, the only power that man can keep in his hands is his reasoning ability. This ability, also known as consciousness, cannot yet be integrated into algorithmic processes. However, data analytics brought to our lives by digital transformation and key concepts such as data mining are working closely with human skills in analyzing customer data and providing needs-based services. In such a revolutionary environment, “the bridge is shaking and can be collapsed in a short time”. What will you do if you don't need cheap and unskilled workers and you don't have the resources to build a good education system and bring new skills to your workers? (Harari, 2018: 52).
What do we really do?