Turkey has a long history of receiving significant numbers of refugees and asylum seekers. Between 1920 and the mid-1990s, it received more than 1.5 million refugees from the Balkans and it experienced a mass influx of half a million refugees from Iraq between 1988-1991. Today, Turkey hosts more refugees than any other country in the world, a position it has now held for six consecutive years. The conflict in neighboring Syria, which began in 2011, has driven 11.8 million people from their homes, resulting in over 6.2 million internally displaced people and 5.6 million refugees. Whereas 85 percent of the global refugee population reside in low and middle-income countries, the world’s six wealthiest countries host less than nine percent of the total. Most Syrians who have been forced to flee across an international border have sought refuge in one of Syria’s immediate neighbors: Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt or Turkey, 3.6 million of which, or 64 percent, having escaped to Turkey. Together with more than 370,000 refugees from other countries including Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Somalia, Turkey now hosts approximately four million refugees – or 14 percent of the global refugee population.